and.

Non Profit Organization Accounting

Certainly, proper accounting is essential for non-trading institutions. These concerns maintain, generally, a cash book and later they prepare a summary of cash transactions appearing in the cash book. This summary takes the form of an account known as receipts and payments account.

Such concerns also prepare 'income and expenditure account' (which is more or less on the lines of profit and loss account) and the Balance Sheet.

The day-to-day accounting consists of maintaining.

(i) Cash book for recording receipts and payments, and

(ii) Ledger for classification of transactions under proper heads.

Receipts and payments account

It is a summary of cash book for a given period, but the Receipts and Payments account shows the totals of cash transactions under different heads. All the receipts, be cheque or cash are entered on the debit (receipts) side (as in cash book) whereas all the payments (both by cheque or cash) are shown on the credit (payments) side. Following features of the receipts and payments account will help to identify its nature clearly :

1. It is a summary of cash book, like a cash book, receipts are shown on the debit side and

payments on the credit side.

2. Cash and bank items are merged in one column. That means receipts in cash as-well-as by , cheque are entered in one column on debit and payments in cash as-well-as by cheque are entered in one column on credit side. Contra entries between cash and bank get eliminated.

3. It is not a part of double entry book-keeping. It is just a summary of cash book which is a , part of double entry system.

4. Just like cash book, it starts with the opening balance of cash and bank and closes with the closing balance of cash and bank.

5. Both revenue and capital receipts and payments are recorded in this account. For example, ...An organization that is exclusively set up to carryon with the object of carrying out social service or promo & organization of social activities, is a non-trading enterprise. payment for rent and payment for building and machinery both are recorded on its payments side. Similarly, receipts on account of subscription and machinery are shown on the receipts side.

6. Usually, it shows a debit balance which represents cash in hand and at bank. However, in case of bank overdraft, which is larger than cash in hand, the account will show a credit balance.

7. Receipts and payments account fails to disclose gain or loss made by the concern during the period because (a) it is prepared on actual receipt basis i.e. it records all receipts-irrespective of the period to which it relates (previous year, current year or future), (b) it also ignores the nature of the receipts and payments (whether capital or revenue). I

8. Accounting concept of gain or loss is based on "accrual concept" which by its very nature "receipts and payments account" is not capable of considering. Therefore, fails to disclose gain or loss (earned or suffered by the concern) during the period. For example, this account ignores: !

(i) Decrease or increase i.e. depreciation or appreciation in the value of assets;

(ii) Increase or decrease in the value of stock;

(iii) Provision for expenses incurred but payments not made-outstanding expenses.

(iv) Accounting for payment in advance for the services to be utilized in the next accounting period-prepaid expenses.

It also fails to distinguish between:

(v) Capital and revenue payments-whether expenditure or purchase of an asset, and

(vi) Business charge and appropriation- whether business expenditure or drawings.

Limitations of receipts and payments account

Receipts and payments account suffers from following limitations :

(a) It does not show expenses and incomes on accrual basis.

(b) It does not show whether the club or society is able to meet its day-to-day expenses out of its incomes.

(c) It does not show expenses on account of depreciation of assets.

(d) It does not explain the details about many expenses and incomes. In order to explain such questions, treasurer of the club prepares 'Income and expenditure account' and balance sheet.

Income and expenditure account

This account is prepared by non-trading concerns who want to know if during the financial year their income has been more than their expenditure i.e. profit or vice versa ( i.e. loss). Since the object of these concerns is not primarily to' earn profit, therefore, they feel shy in giving it the name of profit and loss account. Because the word 'profit' is a taboo which any society 'looks down upon'. Of course, it discloses whether the concerned institution earned or lost.

It is equivalent to and serves the purpose of 'profit and loss account'.

It is prepared on "accrual basis" (not on receipt basis) meaning thereby that all incomes are to be included which have been earned in the relevant period (whether actually received or not). Similarly, it includes all expenses incurred in the relevant period (whether actually paid or not). This account serves exactly the purpose which 'profit and loss account' serves in a trading concern. On the pattern of 'profit and loss account' income is shown on the credit side and expenditure on the debit side. It also distinguishes between 'capital & revenue' items i.e. it does not take into consideration capital items {both receipts and payments). It follows double entry principles faithfully.

Balance Sheet

The balance sheet of a non-trading concern is on usual lines. Liabilities on left hand side and assets on right hand side. In trading concerns, excess of assets over liabilities is called 'capital'. Here, in non-trading concerns, excess of assets over liabilities is called 'capital fund'. The capital fund is built up out of surplus from income and expenditure account.

Distinction between "receipts and payments account" and "Income and expenditure account" :

Receipts and Payments Account

1. It is a real account.

2. It need not be accompanied by a balance sheet.

3. It is like a cash book.

4. Closing balance is carried forward to the next period.

5. Debit side is for receipts and credit side is for payments.

6. Closing balance represents cash in hand and at bank.

7. It includes both capital and revenue items.

8. It usually shows a debit balance.

9. It ignores outstanding items.

10. It ignores credit sales and purchases.

11. It includes prepaid items.

12. It begins with a balance.

13. It includes items relating to past, present or future periods.

14. It is not a part of double entry system.

15. It ignores non-cash items like depreciation, bad debts etc.

Income and Expenditure Account

1. It is a nominal account.

2. Must be accompanied by a balance sheet.

3. It is like a profit & loss account.

4. Closing balance is merged into capital fund.

5. Debit side is for expenses and credit side for incomes.

6. Closing balance represents either surplus or deficiency.

7. It includes only revenue items.

8. It may show a debit or credit balance.

9. It records outstanding items.

10. It records credit sales and purchases.

11. It excludes prepaid items.

12. It does not begin with a balance.

13. It includes items relating to current period only.

14. It is a part of double entry system.

15. It records non-cash items like depreciation, bad debts etc.

Peculiar items of non-trading concern's

Generally, in the exercises, the instructions are given as to the treatment of special items. Such instructions are based on the rules of the concern. These should be followed while solving the question. In cases, where no specific instructions are given, the following guidelines may be considered:

1. Legacy

It is the amount received by the concern as per the 'will' of the 'donor'. It appears

on the receipts side of receipts and payments account. It should not be considered as income but should be treated as capital receipt i.e. credited to capital fund account.

2. Subscriptions

The members of the associations, as per rules, are, generally, required to make

annual subscription to enable it to serve the purpose for which it was created. It appears on the receipts side of the receipts and payments account and is, usually, credited to income. Care must be exercised to take credit for only those subscriptions which are relevant.

3. Life membership fees

Generally, the members are required to make the payment in a lump sum only once which enables them to become the members for whole of the life. Life members are not required to pay the annual membership fees. As 'life membership fees' is a substitute for 'annual membership fees', therefore, it is desirable that life membership fees should be credited to a separate fund and fair proportion be credited to income in subsequent years. In the

examination question, if there is no instruction as to what proportion be treated as income then whole of it should be treated as capital.

4. Entrance fees

This is also an item to be found on the receipts side of receipts and payments account. There are arguments that it should be treated as capital receipt because entrance fees is to be paid by every member only once (i.e. when enrolled as memer, hence it is nonrecurring in nature. But another argument is that since members to be enrolled every year and receipt of entrance fees is a regular item, therefore, it should -be credited to income. In the absence of the instructions anyone of the above treatment may be followed but students should append a note justifying their treatment.

5. Sale of newspapers, periodicals, etc.

As the old newspapers, magazines, and periodicals etc. are to be disposed of every year, the receipts on account of such sale should be treated as income, and therefore, to be credited to income and expenditure account.

6. Sale of sports material.

Sale of sports material (used) is also a regular feature of the clubs. Sale proceeds should be treated as income, and therefore, to be credited to income and expenditure account.

7. Honorarium

Persons may be invited to deliver lectures or artists may be invited to give their performance by a club (for its members). Any money, paid to invitees, is termed as honorarium and not salary. Such honorarium represents expenditure and will be debited to income and expenditure account.

8. Special fund

Legacies and donations may be received for specified purposes. As discussed above, these should be credited to special fund all expenses related to such fund are shown by way of deduction from the respective fund and not as expenditure in income and expenditure account.

9. Sale of old asset

It is a non-recurring item. It cannot be taken to income and expenditure account. It leads to reduction in asset. Therefore, it is shown by way of deduction from the concerned asset. It is important to note that it is the "book value" that is to be deducted from asset. Profit or loss in such a case is taken to income and expenditure account. Where the book value of asset is nil, the entire proceeds of sale be treated as income.

10. Specific Donations

These are received for specific purpose. For example: Donation for building; Donation for prizes; Donation for pavilion etc. These are capital receipts and shown on liabilities side. It is worthy to note that such donations should not be treated as income because if they are taken to income and expenditure account, it will increase income. The increased income may be utilized for any other purpose. Thus, the purpose of donation will not be served. Such donations appear on the liability side because they create a long term obligation (liability) on the institution. For example a donor may wish that prizes may be awarded year after year out of the income earned on his donations. Such a donation account can't be closed within a year by transferring to income and expenditure account.

11. General donations

These donations are not for any specific purpose and being a recurring income they are to be treated as income and are shown on the income side of income and expenditure account.

12. Endowment fund

It represents donation for a specific purpose. Here, the object of the donor is to provide a source of permanent income to the institution. Thus, it is shown in the liability side of balance sheet. Any income earned during the year in such fund is added to it and any expenditure incurred during the year is deducted from it.

13. Proceeds of concerts, lectures and dramas or cultural shows

A concert is a program of musical entertainment. Concerts and lectures of eminent personalities are arranged in aid of charitable Accounts of Non-Trading institutions. Amount in the income side of institutions. Amount collected from such shows by sale of tickets is an income of institution and shown in the income side of income and expenditure account.

14. Govt. grants. These grants are of two types :

(i) Maintenance grants; and

(ii) Development grants.

The maintenance grants are for meeting recurring expenses. These are treated as income and shown in the income side of income and expenditure account. The development grant is for acquiring assets. A development grant is a liability.

15. Accumulated (Capital) Fund

All entities, profit seeking on non-profit seeking require money for carrying out their activities. In business organization such money is called capital while in case of non-profit organizations it is known by various names such as Capital fund or Accumulated fund.

It represents the surplus of assets over outside liabilities of the organization. It is usually made up by special donations; legacies; capitalization of admission fee ; life membership fee etc. It is increased (or decreased) by any surplus (or deficit) on the Income and Expenditure account. Some of the lesser known names given to this item are General fund or Surplus account.

Steps to prepare income and expenditure account

In the absence of the trial balance, the income and expenditure account will be prepared on the basis of the receipts and payments account. The steps are as follows:

1. Ignore opening and dosing cash and bank balances appearing in receipts and payments account.

2. Eliminate all items of capital receipts and payments.

3. Ascertain income of the relevant year by deducting from the total receipts the income received on account of previous and future years and by adding the income accrued due in the year but not received and income received in the previous year but relating to this year.

4. Ascertain expenditure of the relevant period by deducting expenditure both relating to preceding period and succeeding period from the total payments and by adding the expenditure outstanding at the end and expenditure prepaid in the beginning.

5. Make adjustments, as per additional information, such as depreciation, bad debts etc., if any.

6. The income and expenditure account, when balanced, will disclose surplus (if the credit side is bigger) or deficit (if the debit side is bigger). If surplus i.e. excess on income over expenditure add it to the capital or accumulated fund. However, if deficit i.e., excess of expenditure over income deduct it from the capital or accumulated fund.

Distinction between receipt and income

"Receipt" means total cash received during the current year. But "income" means total income earned for the current year.

The points of distinction between the two are stated below :-

Receipt

1. Any cash received in regarded as receipt.

2. It is not confined to any accounting year. In other words, it may include cash received for any year-past, present or future.

3. It may be of both capital and revenue nature.

4. In case of receipt, cash increases equal to amount of receipt.

5. An item can't be called "receipt" unless equivalent amount of cash received.

6. It is recorded on debit side of cash book.

7. It is not included in final accounts. In other words, it is not considered in determining the result of concern.

Income

1. Any cash received mayor may not be regarded as income. Cash received for current year is regarded only as income.

2. It is confined to current accounting year only.

3. It is of revenue nature only.

4. In case of income cash may not increase equal to the amount of income.

5. An item may be "income", even though cash has not been received.

6. It is credited to income and expenditure account.

7. It must be considered in final accounts.

Distinction between payment and expenditure

Payment means total cash paid during the current year. But expenditure means total expenses incurred for the current year only.

The points of distinction between the two, are as follows :-

Payments

1. Any cash paid in regarded as payments.

2. It is not confined to any accounting year, i.e. it may include cash paid for any year-past, present or future.

3. It may be of both capital and revenue nature.

4. In case of payment, cash decreases equal to amount of payment.

5. An item can't be called "payment" unless equivalent amount of cash is paid.

6. It is recorded on credit side of cash book, i.e. credited to cash account.

7. It is not included in final accounts. In other words, it is not considered in determining the result of concern.

Expenditure

1. Any cash paid mayor may not be regarded as expenditure.

2. It is confined to current accounting year only.

3. It is of revenue nature only.

4. Cash mayor may not decrease equal to the amount of expenditure.

5. An item may be "expenditure" even though cash has not been paid.

6. It is debited to income and expenditure account.

7. It must be considered in final accounts.

Author:.

Proprietor of HiTech Computer Services, Anil Kumar Gupta, Bachelor of Engineering (Hons.) in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India, Year of passing : May, 1985, is born on January 7, 1964 , Age : 40+, and is Indian national. Services Offered by HiTech Computer Services : Standard software for various business segments, Customized Software Development, Websites and web based ASP applications development, Financial Accounting and...

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Have a question for Anil?

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ongama
23rd May 2014 4:33am
why is honorarium on the credit side on of the membership fees account & the bank entry on the debit side of the memebership fees account ?

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arbind kr. pandey
8th July 2014 4:55am
Clear concept about Subscription ledger and its journal rule.

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ghazafar
16th July 2014 6:54am
who we can use the balance sheet of non profit organization as as opening trail balance for the new year. i am having a problem in unpaid salaries. plz explain it.

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sagar saha
24th August 2014 7:33am
how to treat a donation which is meant to meet a specific expenses of the organisation.
the matter is one of the member of the organisation is paying for the subscription as well as for the for a specific expenses which is to be met by the organisation

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Dhrubo Sen
7th September 2014 3:34pm
Ours is a cooperative housing society in WB formed to provide maintenance, common services and amenities to its members (vide Section-88(c) of WB Co-op. Societies Act, 2006). Director of Cooperative Audit, Govt of WB is pressing for Profit & Loss A/c instead of Income & Expenditure A/c. Does it not hit the Accounting Principle? I need your valued comment and advice.

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rithik
16th September 2014 10:49am
at the time of closing non trading concern,what we do the balance of capital fund?

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suresh yadav
31st October 2014 3:55am
i want to know about the deficit of the not for profit organizations

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Ayushi
20th November 2014 3:40am
why a investment is created on assets side with the amount of special fund

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PMA Nooruddin
2nd December 2014 5:18am
Sir,

I have surplus in my Income and expenditure statement, i want to transfer it to my General fund, which entry i have to credit and dehit

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jagmohan singh
16th December 2014 10:02pm
legacy is a capital receipt or liability
in objectives questions

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