||Like it? PLEASE +1 it! Thanks!|
3.0 The African Entrepreneur Personal Traits: Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa
(Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, Oct 2002 by Kiggundu, Moses N)
More than twenty personal traits of entrepreneurs have been linked to entrepreneurial success in Africa (LeVine, 1966; Benedict, 1979; Frese, 2000), and elsewhere (Stewart, 1996). Debate continues as to whether psychological variables, socio-demographic factors or external factors are the best determinants of entrepreneurial behavior and performance (Frese, 2000; Buame, 1996). For example, Buame observed that in Ghana, individual characteristics are not sufficient to explain the nature of entrepreneurial success or failure. Keyser et al. (2000) have shown empirically that "psychological factors may be more important than sociodemographic ones" (p. 44). LeVine used McClelland's (1961) need for achievement paradigm to differentiate the various Nigerian ethnic groups in terms of their entrepreneurial effectiveness. Consistent with historical experiences, achievement scores were highest for the Ibo, lowest for the Housa, with the Yoruba being in between. Similarly, Benedict in a study of African (Creole), Chinese, and East Indians in the Seychelles found successful entrepreneurs to be characterized by high physical energy, confidence to act on opportunities, adaptability to changing conditions, and ability to inspire others.
Perhaps the strongest empirical evidence in support of the efficacy of individual traits as predictors of entrepreneurial success comes from the Giessen-Amsterdam studies by Frese and his associates. In a carefully designed series of studies of five African countries (Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa), they found that psychological variables such as personal initiative, innovativeness, entrepreneurial orientation, and autonomy differentiated successful from less successful entrepreneurs. The central tenet of these studies is that the actions of the entrepreneur, influenced by his or her personal attributes, explain differences in reaction to the environment. The study concluded, "The five studies show that psychological variables are important predictors of micro business firms" (Frese, 2000, p. 162).
Related Articles18.0 Conclusion: Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa
SMEs - African confusion with entrepreneurship
17.0 What Needs to be Done - Mainstreaming Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa
Today’s Profiles of Entrepreneurship in Africa: Aliko Dangote
Cheetah Index to Premiere Soon!
SMEs - opportunities in Africa
Writing Phenom David S. Fick Talks with Benin Mwangi! Part Two
1.0 What is known and what needs to be done: Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa
SMEs - surviving the recession in Africa
SME's - why is franchising not more popular in Africa
5.0 The African Entrepreneur Social Status/Relations: Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa
14.0 What Needs to be Done - Producing Useable Knowledge: Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa
Writing Phenom David S. Fick Talks with Benin Mwangi! Part One
SME's - protectionism does it help?
SME's - why compliance models work in Africa
IV. A. Private Traders: THE ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR
III. C. Commercial Policies: THE ROLE OF CHINA’S PUBLIC SECTOR
SME's - an African challenge
SME's - still a strong component in the South African economy
9.0 Conclusions: Entrepreneurship and Small Business Enterprise Growth in Uganda
Home > African-Accounts > Journal of Development Entrepreneurship > 30 The African Entrepreneur Personal Traits Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa > Google +
Free PDF Download
References: Constraints of growth-oriented enterprises in the southern and eastern African region
By Journal of Development Entrepreneurship
About the Author: Journal of Development Entrepreneurship
RSS for Journal of's articles - Visit Journal of's website
The Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship (JDE) provides a forum for the dissemination of descriptive, empirical, and theoretical research that focuses on issues concerning microenterprise and small business development, especially under conditions of adversity.
Click here to visit Journal of's website.
More from Journal of Development Entrepreneurship
Information and Networks Constraints of growthoriented enterprises in the southern and eastern African region
Financial Management Constraints of growthoriented enterprises
40 The African Entrepreneur RaceEthnicity Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa
100 The Entrepreneurial Firm Networks Clusters and the Octopus Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa
140 What Needs to be Done Producing Useable Knowledge Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in Africa
Related Forum PostsWhat do you do to give back?
Re: How will an african make money truely on the net?
Re: Newbie from Africa
My Favorite Entrepreneur – created by Armand Rousso
Young Entrepreneur Organization - All You Need To Know
Share this article. Fund someone's dream.
Share this post and you'll help support entrepreneurs in Africa through our partnership with Kiva. Over $50,000 raised and counting - Please keep sharing! Learn more.
||Like this page? PLEASE +1 it!|